Prevalence of Malignancy in Common Variable Immunodeficiency Patients at a Tertiary Care Center

Common Variable Immunodeficiency (CVID) is the Primary Immunodeficiency most commonly encountered in clinical practice. 20% of adult patients with CVID will develop some form of neoplasia. Our main objective in this study is to determine the prevalence of malignancy and identify the most common type of cancer among patients with CVID in our hospital unit.
Materials and Methods:
Observational, descriptive, and cross-sectional study in which the medical records of patients diagnosed with Common Variable Immunodeficiency of the Allergy and Clinical Immunology Service at Hospital de Especialidades “Dr. Bernardo Sepúlveda Gutiérrez”, Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI, IMSS, were reviewed.
The medical records of 38 patients diagnosed with CVID were reviewed, comprising 20 females and 18 males. Among them, 6 patients with malignancy were identified, of which 4 were females and 2 were males, with an average age of 32 years. The prevalence of malignancy in our population was 15.7%. The reported cancer types were: Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma (3/6), Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (1/6), Mixed Cellularity Hodgkin Lymphoma (1/6), and Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (1/6). Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma was the most frequently reported, observed in 3 patients.
In our population, a prevalence of 15.7% was estimated, with Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma being the most common neoplasm. This contrasts with literature, where Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma are typically the most common in CVID patients. Solid tumors such as Gastric, Breast, Prostate, Bladder, Pancreatic, Thyroid, and Lung cancers have also been described. Comparative studies with the general population demonstrate an incidence 200 to 400 times higher for these pathologies in CVID. Finally, it is crucial to establish a standardized protocol for timely diagnosis of malignancy due to the increased risk of their development in these patients.

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