Clinical and Biological Description of a Cohort of 42 Patients with Secondary Immunodeficiency

Introduction: Secondary immunodeficiencies are acquired deficiencies in the immune system that result from various external factors, leading to a compromised ability to fight pathogens and maintain normal immune function.
Objective: To provide a clinical and biological characterization of a cohort of 42 patients with secondary immunodeficiency.
Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted on medical records of 42 patients diagnosed with secondary immunodeficiency. Clinical presentations, laboratory findings, and treatment approaches were assessed and documented.
Results: The cohort consisted of 42 patients, with males comprising 62% of the study population. The mean age of the patients was 60 years old. The most common clinical presentations among the patients were pneumonia (58%), sinusitis (49%), bronchitis (16%), otitis (16%), flu (12%), and cellulitis (2%). Notably, 28 patients (67%) had underlying hemopathies, with lymphoma (55%) being the most commonly observed.
Laboratory investigations revealed that 79% of the patients had IgG levels lower than 7 g/L (mean IgG level was 3,83 g/L) Additionally, a decrease in total lymphocyte count (less than 1200) was found in 47% of the patients, suggesting possible impaired cellular immunity. Mean CD4 T-cell count was 604.
Regarding treatment, 51% of the patients were on subcutaneous immunoglobulin (SCIG), while 40% received intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG). Furthermore, antibiotic prophylaxis was prescribed in 26% of the patients as a preventive measure.
Conclusion: The findings highlight the predominance of pneumonia and sinusitis as the primary clinical presentations, with lymphoma being the most common underlying hemopathy. The presence of decreased IgG levels and lymphocyte counts emphasizes the importance of immunological evaluations in secondary immunodeficiency. The use of SCIG, IVIG, and antibiotic prophylaxis demonstrates the diverse treatment approaches employed to manage these patients. These results contribute to a better understanding of secondary immunodeficiency and can aid in improving diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for this patient population.

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