Host-Microbiota Interactions Shape Local and Systemic Inflammatory Diseases [BRIEF REVIEWS]

Abstract

Recent advances in understanding how the mammalian immune system and intestinal microbiota functionally interact have yielded novel insights for human health and disease. Modern technologies to quantitatively measure specific members and functional characteristics of the microbiota in the gastrointestinal tract, along with fundamental and emerging concepts in the field of immunology, have revealed numerous ways in which host-microbiota interactions proceed beneficially, neutrally, or detrimentally for mammalian hosts. It is clear that the gut microbiota has a strong influence on the shape and quality of the immune system; correspondingly, the immune system guides the composition and localization of the microbiota. In the following review, we examine the evidence that these interactions encompass homeostasis and inflammation in the intestine and, in certain cases, extraintestinal tissues. Lastly, we discuss translational therapies stemming from research on host-microbiota interactions that could be used for the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases.

Footnotes

  • This work was supported by National Institutes of Health Grants DP5OD012116, R01AI123368, R21DK110262, and U01AI095608, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Mucosal Immunology Studies Team, the Crohn’s and Colitis Foundation of America, the Searle Scholars Program, and an American Asthma Foundation Scholar Award.

  • Abbreviations used in this article:

    AhR
    aryl hydrocarbon receptor
    CD
    Crohn’s disease
    EAE
    experimental autoimmune encephalitis
    FMT
    fecal microbiota transplant therapy
    GI
    gastrointestinal
    IBD
    inflammatory bowel disease
    IEC
    intestinal epithelial cell
    ILC
    innate lymphoid cell
    ILC3
    group 3 ILC
    MAMP
    microbe-associated molecular pattern
    PSA
    polysaccharide A
    RA
    rheumatoid arthritis
    SCFA
    short-chain fatty acid
    SFB
    segmented filamentous bacteria
    Treg
    regulatory T cell
    WT
    wild-type.
  • Received September 19, 2016.
  • Accepted October 31, 2016.

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