Journal of Clinical Immunology

Urogenital Abnormalities in Adenosine Deaminase Deficiency


Abstract

Background

Improved survival in ADA-SCID patients is revealing new aspects of the systemic disorder. Although increasing numbers of reports describe the systemic manifestations of adenosine deaminase deficiency, currently there are no studies in the literature evaluating genital development and pubertal progress in these patients.

Methods

We collected retrospective data on urogenital system and pubertal development of 86 ADA-SCID patients followed in the period 2000–2017 at the Great Ormond Street Hospital (UK) and 5 centers in Italy. In particular, we recorded clinical history and visits, and routine blood tests and ultrasound scans were performed as part of patients’ follow-up.

Results and Discussion

We found a higher frequency of congenital and acquired undescended testes compared with healthy children (congenital, 22% in our sample, 0.5–4% described in healthy children; acquired, 16% in our sample, 1–3% in healthy children), mostly requiring orchidopexy. No urogenital abnormalities were noted in females. Spontaneous pubertal development occurred in the majority of female and male patients with a few cases of precocious or delayed puberty; no patient presented high FSH values. Neither ADA-SCID nor treatment performed (PEG-ADA, BMT, or GT) affected pubertal development or gonadic function.

Conclusion

In summary, this report describes a high prevalence of cryptorchidism in a cohort of male ADA-SCID patients which could represent an additional systemic manifestation of ADA-SCID. Considering the impact urogenital and pubertal abnormalities can have on patients’ quality of life, we feel it is essential to include urogenital evaluation in ADA-SCID patients to detect any abnormalities, initiate early treatment, and prevent long-term complications.

Infantile Myelofibrosis and Myeloproliferation with CDC42 Dysfunction


Abstract

Studies of genetic blood disorders have advanced our understanding of the intrinsic regulation of hematopoiesis. However, such genetic studies have only yielded limited insights into how interactions between hematopoietic cells and their microenvironment are regulated. Here, we describe two affected siblings with infantile myelofibrosis and myeloproliferation that share a common de novo mutation in the Rho GTPase CDC42 (Chr1:22417990:C>T, p.R186C) due to paternal germline mosaicism. Functional studies using human cells and flies demonstrate that this CDC42 mutant has altered activity and thereby disrupts interactions between hematopoietic progenitors and key tissue microenvironmental factors. These findings suggest that further investigation of this and other related disorders may provide insights into how hematopoietic cell-microenvironment interactions play a role in human health and can be disrupted in disease. In addition, we suggest that deregulation of CDC42 may underlie more common blood disorders, such as primary myelofibrosis.

Health-Related Quality of Life and Multidimensional Fatigue Scale in Children with Primary Immunodeficiencies


Abstract

Purpose

Patients with primary immunodeficiency disease (PID) have an increased risk of experiencing physical activity limitations, social difficulties, and psychological problems due to their chronic condition. Evaluation of their health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and fatigue is crucial in these patients to help understand their complex disease and provide adequate medical care.

Methods

In this study, we evaluated HRQOL and fatigue in pediatric and young adult patients with PID attending our center. Participants completed the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL), version 4.0, and the PedsQL multidimensional fatigue module, standard version.

Results

Fifty-three PID patients were recruited (age range: 2–23 years). The mean HRQOL score obtained was 66.61 (SD: 18.73) out of 100, and the emotional and work/school dimensions were the ones most highly affected. There were no significant differences in reported quality of life between patients and their caregivers. The mean patient-reported fatigue value was 68.81 (SD: 17.80) out of 100, and the rest-related dimension was the one most highly affected. In the caregivers’ assessment, general fatigue was the most highly affected dimension.

Conclusions

The results of this study show that quality of life is poor and fatigue measures are considerably increased in our young adult and pediatric patients with PIDs. These findings can indicate areas requiring more intensive interventions, and they will serve as a basis for comparison of future results.

Immunological and Clinical Phenotyping in Primary Antibody Deficiencies: a Growing Disease Spectrum


Abstract

Purpose

Although common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is considered the most prevalent symptomatic primary antibody deficiency (PAD), there is a population with symptomatic PADs that do not meet criteria for CVID. We analyzed clinical and immunological profiles of patients with different PADs to better understand the differences and similarities between CVID and other PADs.

Methods

We extracted clinical and laboratory data of patients with PADs from electronic medical records. Patients were categorized into CVID, IgG subclass 2 deficiency (IgG2D), IgG deficiency (IgGD), and specific antibody deficiency (sAbD) based on basal immunoglobulin levels and pneumococcal vaccine responses. We compared clinical and immunological characteristics in these groups.

Results

All patients, regardless of PAD types, showed similar frequencies of infections, bronchiectasis, and interstitial lung disease (ILD). Hematopoietic malignancies were more frequently found in the CVID than in the IgG2D, IgGD, and sAbD groups, while the latter groups trended towards an increased frequency of connective tissue diseases (CTD). Low counts of natural killer (NK) cells were associated with malignancy, autoimmunity, and ILD in CVID but not in other PAD groups.

Conclusions

Higher frequency of hematopoietic malignancy in CVID than in the other PADs and association of lower NK cell counts with non-infectious complications in CVID suggest a relationship between immune alterations and the development of non-infectious manifestations in PADs.

Compound Heterozygous Mutations of IL12RB1 in a Patient with Selective Defects in Th17 Differentiation

1. Al-Muhsen S, Casanova JL. The genetic heterogeneity of Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial diseases. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2008;122(6):1043–51. Google Scholar 2. Isnardi I, Ng YS, Menard L, Meyers G, Saadoun D, Srdanovic I, et al. Complement receptor 2/CD21- human naive B cells contain mostly autoreactive unresponsive clones. Blood. 2010;115(24):5026–36. Google Scholar 3. Saadoun D, …

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The IL1RN Mutation Creating the Most-Upstream Premature Stop Codon Is Hypomorphic Because of a Reinitiation of Translation

1. Aksentijevich I, Masters SL, Ferguson PJ, Dancey P, Frenkel J, van Royen-Kerkhoff A, et al. An autoinflammatory disease with deficiency of the interleukin-1-receptor antagonist. N Engl J Med. 2009;360(23):2426–37. 2. Ulusoy E, Karaca NE, El-Shanti H, Kilicoglu E, Aksu G, Kutukculer N. Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist deficiency with a novel mutation; late onset and successful …

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Lymphoproliferative Disease in CVID: a Report of Types and Frequencies from a US Patient Registry


Abstract

Purpose

Lymphoproliferative disease in common variable immunodeficiency disease (CVID) is heterogeneous in pathogenesis and ranges from non-malignant lymphoid hyperplasia to lymphoma.

Methods

The United States Immunodeficiency Network (USIDNET) patient registry was queried for lymphoproliferative diseases reported in CVID patients. Diagnoses included as possible manifestations of lymphoproliferation included lymphadenopathy, lymphoid hyperplasia, lymphocytic inflammation, lymphocytosis, and gammopathy.

Results

Among 1091 CVID patients, lymphoproliferative conditions were reported in 17.2% (N = 188). These conditions included lymphadenopathy (N = 192, 12.3%), lymphoid hyperplasia or lymphocytic inflammation (N = 50, 4.6%), lymphocytosis (N = 3, 0.3%), and gammopathies (N = 3, 0.3%). Of the 188 patients with lymphoproliferative conditions, 15 (8%) also had a diagnosis of lymphoma, while the remaining 173 (92%) did not. Nine (4.8%) had a diagnosis of non-lymphomatous malignancy including basal cell carcinoma (N = 3, 1.6%), thyroid carcinoma (N = 2, 1.1%), gynecologic cancer (N = 2, 1.1%), testicular cancer (N = 1), and vocal cord carcinoma (N = 1). CVID patients with lymphoma were older than patients with lymphoproliferative disease who did not have a diagnosis of lymphoma at the time of analysis (median age 49 vs. 35 years, p = 0.005). CVID patients with lymphoproliferative disease had 2.5 times higher odds of having chronic lung disease compared with those with lymphoma (OR = 0.4, p = 0.049). There were no significant differences in the frequency of autoimmune, gastrointestinal, hepatic, or granulomatous disease between these populations.

Conclusions

While CVID patients are at increased risk for lymphoma, lymphoproliferation may be observed in the absence of a concurrent hematologic or solid tumor malignancy.

Homozygous IL1RN Mutation in Siblings with Deficiency of Interleukin-1 Receptor Antagonist (DIRA)

1. Aksentijevich I, Masters SL, Ferguson PJ, Dancey P, Frenkel J, van Royen-Kerkhoff A, et al. An autoinflammatory disease with deficiency of the interleukin-1-receptor antagonist. N Engl J Med. 2009;360(23):2426–37. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa0807865. Google Scholar 2. Reddy S, Jia S, Geoffrey R, Lorier R, Suchi M, Broeckel U, et al. An autoinflammatory disease due to homozygous deletion …

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Complement Activation in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome


Abstract

The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2 del), also known as DiGeorge syndrome, is a genetic disorder with an estimated incidence of 1:3000 to 1:6000 births. These patients may suffer from affection of many organ systems with cardiac malformations, immunodeficiency, hypoparathyroidism, autoimmunity, palate anomalies, and psychiatric disorders being the most frequent. The importance of the complement system in 22q11.2 del has not been investigated. The objective of this study was to evaluate the complement system in relation to clinical and immunological parameters in patients. A national cohort of patients (n = 69) with a proven heterozygous deletion of chromosome 22q11.2 and a group of age and sex matched controls (n = 56) were studied. Functional capacity of the classical, lectin, and alternative pathways of the complement system as well as complement activation products C3bc and terminal complement complex (TCC) were accessed and correlated to clinical features. All patients in our study had normal complement activation in both classical and alternative pathways. The frequency of mannose-binding lectin deficiency was comparable to the normal population. The patients had significantly raised plasma levels of C3bc and a slight, but not significant, increase in TCC compared with controls. This increase was associated with the presence of psychiatric disorders in patients. The present study shows no complement deficiencies in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. On the contrary, there are signs of increased complement activation in these patients. Complement activation is particularly associated with the presence of psychiatric disorders.

Proceed with Caution: STAT1 GOF Diagnosis Missed Due to Intronic SNP

1. Galea MA, Gray P, Caramins MC. Identification of a STAT1 sequence variant in an Australian chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis pedigree. Sydney: Poster presented at: Human Genome Association (HUGO) Conference; 2012. 2. van de Veerdonk FL, Plantinga TS, Hoischen A, Smeekens SP, Joosten LAB, Gilissen C, et al. STAT1 mutations in autosomal dominant chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis. …

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