REDD1/Autophagy Pathway Is Associated with Neutrophil-Driven IL-1{beta} Inflammatory Response in Active Ulcerative Colitis [CLINICAL AND HUMAN IMMUNOLOGY]

Infiltration of neutrophils into colonic mucosa has been associated with the severity of ulcerative colitis (UC). We investigated the effect of disease microenvironment on the release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) as well as the involved mechanisms in NETosis and whether certain NET proteins are correlated with disease phenotype. Peripheral blood neutrophils, sera, and colonic tissue were collected from treatment-naive and mesalazine-treated patients with active UC, treatment-naive patients with active Crohn’s disease, patients suffering from infectious colitis, or healthy individuals (controls). Analysis of colonic biopsy specimens and peripheral blood neutrophils for the presence of NET-related markers using immunofluorescence confocal microscopy, ELISA, immunoblotting, flow cytometry, and quantitative PCR were performed. In vitro cell and tissue culture systems were further deployed. The local inflammatory response in colon in UC, but not Crohn’s disease, is characterized by the presence of NETs carrying bioactive IL-1β and thrombogenic tissue factor. The inflammatory environment of UC is able to induce neutrophil activation, IL-1β expression, and NET release, as shown both ex vivo and in vitro. REDD1 expression, as a mediator linking inflammation, autophagy, and NET release, was also specifically associated with the inflammatory response of UC. We show that neutrophil expression of REDD1 in colon tissue and the presence of IL-1β in neutrophils/NETs provide candidate biomarkers for the differential diagnosis of inflammatory colitis and possible targets for the treatment of UC, suggesting that UC shares common features with autoinflammatory disorders.

Case report presenting the diagnostic challenges in a patient with recurrent acquired angioedema, antiphospholipid antibodies and undetectable C2 levels



Angioedema secondary to acquired C1 inhibitor deficiency (AAE) is a rare disease. It usually is associated with lymphoproliferative disorders. We present a case of AAE in a patient with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), a non-Hodgkin lymphoproliferative disorder (NHL) with undetectable levels of C2, C4, and an undetectable CH50. The co-existence of AAE, APS, and NHL, with an undetectable C2 level, to the best of our knowledge, has never before reported together in the same patient.

Case presentation

A patient with a recent history of thrombosis presented with recurrent episodes of angioedema. The workup revealed undetectable levels of C2, C4 and undetectable CH50. Quantitative levels of C1 inhibitor and C1q were low. C1 inhibitor function was less than 40%. Anti-cardiolipin antibodies were found. The patient was initially treated on demand with intravenous plasma-derived human C1-INH concentrates, (Cinryze® Shire). Later the patient received prophylactic therapy with danazol. She was diagnosed with lymphoma 3 years after her first episode of angioedema. Single agent therapy with rituximab was not only effective in treating her lymphoma but also preventing further episodes of angioedema. Anti-cardiolipin antibody titers also declined. Additionally, marked early primary pathway complement component abnormalities and CH50 also corrected, although incomplete normalization of C4 proved to be due to a heterozygous C4 deficiency.


This case shows the unique association of AAE, APS and NHL in a patient with undetectable levels of early complement components. Additionally, this case also shows for the first time the effectiveness of rituximab therapy in all three disease states while co-existing simultaneously in the same patient.

Rapid Push vs Pump-Infused Subcutaneous Immunoglobulin Treatment: a Randomized Crossover Study of Quality of Life in Primary Immunodeficiency Patients



Subcutaneous immunoglobulin replacement therapy (IgRT) may be administered once a week with a pump or every other day with a syringe (rapid push). The objective of the study was to compare the impact of pump and rapid push infusions on patient’s life quality index (LQI).


This study was a randomized, crossover, multicenter, non-inferiority trial conducted in adults with primary immunodeficiency (PID) accustomed to weekly infusions at home by pump. Patients used pump or rapid push for 3 months each according to the randomized sequence. Main criterion was PID-LQI factor I (treatment interference). Non-inferiority ratio was set at 90%.


Thirty patients entered the study; 28 completed the two periods. IgRT exposure was similar during each period. At the end of each period, mean LQI factor 1 was 87.0 (IC95% [80.3; 94.3]) and 77.80 (IC95% [71.5; 84.7]) for pump and rapid push, respectively. There was a slightly larger effect of rapid push on treatment interference than with pump so that the primary endpoint could not be met. No difference was found on other LQI components, satisfaction (TSQM), or quality of life (SF36v2). Eight patients declared to prefer rapid push while 19 others preferred pump. Of rapid push infusions, 67.2% led to local reactions vs 71.8% of pump infusions (p = 0.11) illustrating its good tolerance. Rapid push and pump infusions achieved similar trough IgG levels with similar incidence of infections. Rapid push saved 70% of administration cost when compared to pump.


Since IgRT is a lifelong treatment in PID patients, individualization of treatment is of paramount importance. Rapid push is a new administration method in the physician’s armamentarium which is preferred by some patients and is cost-effective. Identifier


Clinical Implications

Self-administration of small volumes of immunoglobulins at home, every other day, using a syringe (rapid push) is a cost-effective alternative to administration of larger volumes by pump once a week.

Capsule Summary

This study compared subcutaneous infusions of immunoglobulins either weekly via a pump or every other day via a syringe (rapid push). Rapid push is preferred by some patients and is cost-effective, therefore completing a physician’s armamentarium.

Association between fractional exhaled nitric oxide, sputum induction and peripheral blood eosinophil in uncontrolled asthma



The fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and blood eosinophils are biomarkers of eosinophilic airway inflammation used in the diagnosis and management of asthma, although induced sputum is the gold standard test for phenotypic asthma. Nevertheless, the clinical application of the correlation between sputum eosinophils, FeNO and blood eosinophils is controversial.


To investigate the clinical application of the correlation between sputum eosinophils, FeNO and blood eosinophils with uncontrolled asthmatic patients. It also examined the relationships between these biomarkers in bronchial reversibility and bronchial hyper-responsiveness (BHR).


This study evaluated 75 uncontrolled asthmatic patients (symptom control and future risk of adverse outcomes). All patients underwent the following on the same day: FeNO, spirometry, BHR or bronchodilator reversibility, sputum induction and blood collection. Eosinophilic airway inflammation was defined as sputum eosinophils ≥ 2.5% or FeNO levels ≥ 32 parts per billion (ppb).


A significant positive relationship was between percentage of sputum eosinophils and FeNO (r = 0.4556; p < 0.0001) and percentage of blood eosinophils (r = 0.3647; p = 0.0013), and a significant negative correlation was between percentage of sputum neutrophils and FeNO (r = − 0.3653; p = 0.0013). No relationship between FeNO and percentage of blood eosinophils (p = 0.5801). ROC curve analysis identified FeNO was predictive of sputum eosinophilia [area under the curve (AUC) 0.707, p = 0.004] at a cutoff point of 35.5 ppb (sensitivity = 67.3%, specificity = 73.9%). Percentage of blood eosinophils was also highly predictive with an AUC of 0.73 (p = 0.002) at a cut-off point of 1.5%, sensitivity and specificity were 61.5 and 78.3%, respectively. Although the sputum neutrophil percentage was correlated with FeNO, ROC curve of these parameters did not show useful values (AUC = 0.297, p = 0.003; AUC = 0.295, p = 0.021).

Conclusions and clinical relevance

Blood eosinophils and FeNO can accurately predict eosinophilic airway inflammation in uncontrolled asthmatic patients. FeNO is poor surrogates for sputum neutrophils and blood eosinophils. The FeNO level and blood eosinophils, which determine an optimal cutoff for sputum eosinophilia, need more studies.

Histone modifications and their role in epigenetics of atopy and allergic diseases


This review covers basic aspects of histone modification and the role of posttranslational histone modifications in the development of allergic diseases, including the immune mechanisms underlying this development. Together with DNA methylation, histone modifications (including histone acetylation, methylation, phosphorylation, ubiquitination, etc.) represent the classical epigenetic mechanisms. However, much less attention has been given to histone modifications than to DNA methylation in the context of allergy. A systematic review of the literature was undertaken to provide an unbiased and comprehensive update on the involvement of histone modifications in allergy and the mechanisms underlying this development. In addition to covering the growing interest in the contribution of histone modifications in regulating the development of allergic diseases, this review summarizes some of the evidence supporting this contribution. There are at least two levels at which the role of histone modifications is manifested. One is the regulation of cells that contribute to the allergic inflammation (T cells and macrophages) and those that participate in airway remodeling [(myo-) fibroblasts]. The other is the direct association between histone modifications and allergic phenotypes. Inhibitors of histone-modifying enzymes may potentially be used as anti-allergic drugs. Furthermore, epigenetic patterns may provide novel tools in the diagnosis of allergic disorders.

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